Feminist Knitting: How stitching together a visual statement for the Women's March created a movement
After a divisive 2016 U.S. presidential election, a large segment of the population took to social media to express their frustrations and to find solace in the unity created by the Pussyhat Project. This content analysis focuses on how Facebook users framed the social movement. Findings indicate social media allowed a directed viewpoint of a single voice to catch momentum. The phenomenon of a fiber art project became an iconic visual symbol of the Women's March and helped raise awareness about women's issues and advance human rights.
Al-Rawi, A. K. (2014). The Arab Spring and Online Protests in Iraq. International Journal of Communication (19328036), 8, 916--942. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=97253160&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Atkins-Sayre, W. (2008). Reconceiving Motherhood: Second Wave Feminists Question the Maternal Role. Conference Papers--National Communication Association, 1.
Avidar, R. (2009). Avidar, Research in brief: Social media, societal culture and Israeli public relations practice, Public Relations Review 35 (2009), pp. 437--439.
Boissoneault (2017). The Original Women's March on Washington and the Suffragists who paved the way. Smithsonianmag.com.
Bratich, J.Z. & Brush, H.M. "Fabricating Activism: Craft-Work, Popular Culture, Gender." Utopian Studies, vol. 22, no. 2, 2011, pp. 233-60.
Bruns, A. (2008). Reconfiguring Television for a Networked, Produsage Context. Media International Australia (8/1/07-Current), (126), 82--94.
Cabalin, C. (2014). Online and Mobilized Students: The Use of Facebook in the Chilean Student Protests. Communicar, 22(43), 25--33. http://doi.org/10.3916/C43-2014-02
Chiriţă, D. (2012). (non) Value in Women's Magazines. Communication & Marketing / Revista De Comunicare Si Marketing, 3(5), 39--52. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=85205058&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Cochrane, K. (2013). The Fourth Wave of Feminism: Meet the Rebel Women, The Guardian, last modified December 10, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/10/fourth-wave-feminism-rebel-women.
Coleman, J. (2009). An introduction to feminisms in a postfeminist age. Women's Studies Journal,23(2), 3--13. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=45344651&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Curnutt, H. (2012). Flashing Your Phone: Sexting and the Remediation of Teen Sexuality. Communication Quarterly, 60(3), 353--369. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463373.2012.688728
Diamond, D. (2009). The Fourth Wave of Feminism: Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Studies in Gender & Sexuality, 10(4), 213--223. http://doi.org/10.1080/15240650903228187
Enriques, E. (2001). Feminism and feminist criticism: An overview of various feminist strategies for reconstructing knowledge. Manila: Isis International.
Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51--58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x
Evans, E. (2016). What makes a (Third) Wave? How and why the third-wave narrative works for contemporary feminists. International Feminist Journal of Politics. 18(3)
Fahrenthold (2016). Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005 - The Washington Post.
Filipolic, Ji. (2017). Donald Trump's "P---y" Comment Is the Root of Sexual Violence. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://time.com/4523972/donald-trumps-comment-root-sexual-violence/
Fotopoulou, A. (2016). Digital and networked by default? Women's organizations and the social imaginary of networked feminism. New Media & Society, 18(6), 989--1005. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814552264
Fraser, N. (2013). Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis. Verso.
Gallagher, M. (1981). Unequal Opportunities: The Case of Women and the Media. Paris: Unesco Press.
Gill, R. (2016). Post-postfeminism?: new feminist visibilities in postfeminist times. Feminist Media Studies, 16(4), 610--630. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2016.1193293
Gitlin, T. (1978). MEDIA SOCIOLOGY: The Dominant Paradigm. Theory & Society, 6(2), 205.
Glenn. C. (2015). Activism or "Slacktivism?": Digital Media and Organizing for Social Change, Communication Teacher, 29:2, 81-85, DOI: 10.1080/17404622.2014.1003310
Goode, L. (2009). Social news, citizen journalism and democracy. New Media & Society, 11(8), 1287--1305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809341393
Hannam, J. (2006). Feminism (1 edition). Harlow, England: Routledge.
Harlow, S. (2013). It was a "Facebook revolution:" Exploring the meme-like spread of narratives, during the Egyptian protests, Revista de Comunicacion 12, 59--82.
Hartmann, H. (1981). The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: towards a more progressive union. In L. Sargent, (Ed.), Women and revolutions: a discussion of the unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism (pp. 1-41). Boston: South End Press.
hooks, B. (1992). Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press.
Howard, P. N., & Parks, M. R. (2012). Social media and political change: Capacity, constraint, and consequence. Journal of Communication, 62, 359--362. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01626.x
Kantor, J. (2013). A Titan's How-To on Breaking the Glass Ceiling. New York Times online. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/22/us/sheryl-sandberg-lean-in-author-hopes-to-spur-movement.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1
Karamat, A., & Farooq, A. (2016). Emerging Role of Social Media in Political Activism: Perceptions and Practices. South Asian Studies (1026-678X), 31(1), 381--396.
Koller: 'Not just a colour': pink as a gender and sexuality marker 415-416
Krolokke, C. & Sorensen, (2006). Gender Communication Theories and Analyses: From Silence to Performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Macrae, F. (2013). Ladettes are blamed for rise in females with broken noses. Retrieved August 2, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2477163/Women-behaving-badly-Ladettes-blamed-rise-females-broken-noses.html
Miladi, N. (2011). New media and the Arab revolution: Citizen reporters and social activism. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 4(2&3), 113--119. https://doi.org/10.1386/jammr.4.2-3.113_2
Phillips, R. and V.E. Cree (2014). What does the "Fourth Wave" Mean for Teaching Feminism in Twenty-First Century Social Work?, Social Work Education 33: 930--943, http://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2014.885007
Phillips, R., & Cree, V. E. (2014). What does the "Fourth Wave" Mean for Teaching Feminism in Twenty-First Century Social Work? Social Work Education, 33(7), 930--943. http://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2014.885007
Phruksachart, M. (2017). Who will save us from the Pantsuit Nation? Reading liberal media in the age of Trump. Feminist Media Studies, 17(3), 513--516. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2017.1304717
Rakow, L. (2006). Rethinking Gender Research in Communication. Journal of Communication. 36. 11 - 26. 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1986.tb01447.x.
Savage, C. (1979) Our Nell: A Scrapbook Biography of Nellie L. McClung. p.124. Also http://library2.usask.ca/herstory/nellie.html
Scott, B. K. (2008). Gender and Modernism: Critical Concepts. Routledge: New York.
Selyukh, A. (2017). Postelection, Overwhelmed Facebook Users Unfriend, Cut Back. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/11/20/502567858/post-election-overwhelmed-facebook-users-unfriend-cut-back
Shamus, K. (2017). Pussyhat Project has hot pink yarn flying off Michigan shelves. Retrieved April 1, 2017, from http://www.freep.com/story/news/2017/01/12/pussyhat-project-womens-march/96355616/
Snider, P. B. (1967). "Mr. Gates" Revisited: A 1966 Version of the 1949 Case Study. Journalism Quarterly, 44, 419--427.
Van Zoonen, L. (1994). Feminist media studies. London: Sage Publications.
Vavrus, M. (2009). What Is This Post- in Postracial, Postfeminist. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 210--253.
White, D. M. (1950). The "Gate Keeper": A Case Study in the Selection of News. Journalism Quarterly, 27, 383--390.
Wood, J.T. (2005). Women and Language: WL; Urbana(28)2, p. 61-64,72.
Wulff, S. (1997). Media Literacy. In Media Education Assessment Handbook (pp. 123--142). National Communication Association. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=26502315&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).